User Tag List

+ Reply to Thread
Results 1 to 9 of 9

Thread: NASA Should Beware of Viruses From Outer Space

  1. #1
    Original Ranter
    Points: 570,226, Level: 100
    Level completed: 0%, Points required for next Level: 0
    Overall activity: 99.8%
    Achievements:
    SocialCreated Album picturesOverdrive50000 Experience PointsVeteran
    Awards:
    Posting Award
    Peter1469's Avatar Advisor
    Karma
    435749
    Join Date
    Jun 2011
    Location
    NOVA
    Posts
    170,095
    Points
    570,226
    Level
    100
    Thanks Given
    101,804
    Thanked 86,730x in 58,196 Posts
    Mentioned
    2282 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)

    NASA Should Beware of Viruses From Outer Space

    NASA Should Beware of Viruses From Outer Space

    The US will be collecting Mars dirt for return to earth. Private companies will be zipping around in space, the moon, Mars, and the asteroid belt. So NASA needs plans to safeguard against viruses that may be brought back to Earth.

    (Bloomberg Opinion) -- This summer, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration will launch a rover designed to collect samples of the Martian surface and store them until they can eventually be brought back to Earth. When they arrive, according to a former NASA scientist, they’ll be “quarantined and treated as though they are the Ebola virus until proven safe."His statement caused a minor media sensation, and understandably so. In the midst of one pandemic, Americans aren't ready for another imported from outer space. But ready or not, the U.S. and other spacefaring nations need to start updating planetary-protection measures for a new era of spaceflight.In the years ahead, NASA's Mars initiatives will likely be emulated by other countries. Ambitious private space companies are eager to follow with their own robots (and perhaps, eventually, humans). Clearer safety guidelines are essential both for protecting Earth and for ensuring that a wary public is comfortable with humanity's next steps into the solar system.No one knows, of course, if there’s life elsewhere in the universe. But as far back as the mid-1950s, scientists were thinking about ways to prevent alien lifeforms from contaminating the Earth (and vice-versa). In 1967, the Outer Space Treaty codified a consensus that member states should avoid "adverse changes in the environment of the Earth resulting from the introduction of extraterrestrial matter." When the Apollo 11 astronauts returned from the moon in 1969, they were immediately sealed in a decontamination chamber for three weeks, on the off chance that they had conveyed lunar micro-organisms to Houston.In the years that followed, planetary-protection guidelines were gradually updated. The Committee on Space Research (or COSPAR), a global research group, came up with non-binding protocols for various types of missions, and wisely requested that any "non-terrestrial replicating entity" — that is, a lifeform — remain contained on landing. At NASA, the Office of Planetary Protection ensures that these and other guidelines are followed when planning new missions.But while these rules worked well enough when NASA was mostly focused on protecting other planets, they’re turning out to be incomplete or obsolete in an era of one-of-a-kind missions like the Mars sample return. In 2018, a review by the National Academy of Sciences found that "there did not appear to be a solid scientific basis" for some of the agency's planetary-protection rules. And even as it prepares to launch the new Mars rover in July, NASA has yet to come up with policies on how to safely distribute any returned samples to scientists.Meanwhile, private space companies increasingly have the technology and ambition to make Mars visits of their own. Elon Musk, founder of SpaceX, says he hopes to send a crewed mission there in 2024. If the company manages to meet that unlikely deadline, it might be able to avoid planetary-protection requirements altogether. At the moment, no federal agency has jurisdiction to authorize and supervise such a mission. Among other problems, that regulatory gap places the U.S. out of compliance with the Outer Space Treaty.Addressing these issues is essential, and not just to avoid a real-life Andromeda Strain. For one thing, steps taken by the U.S. now will be adapted by COSPAR and become a non-binding global standard, which should help ensure that this new space age is a safe one. At the same time, a public scarred by the coronavirus is likely to be wary of any space missions that require Ebola-level containment strategies. If NASA and other spacefarers want to assure people that they shouldn’t be worried about Martian Ebola, they need to prove that their safety efforts are as failsafe as their engineering.For a start, NASA should reassess its planetary-protection measures in light of recent technological advances, and make sure it fills any gaps. It should also establish a standing forum devoted to updating those policies as circumstances warrant. Imposing safety requirements on private space companies is a trickier issue that ultimately will require congressional action. But in the meantime, NASA should link planetary-protection compliance to eligibility for federal contracts.There's no telling when and where the next pandemic will emerge. But with a little care, NASA and its partners can all but guarantee that it won’t be extraterrestrial.
    ΜOΛΩΝ ΛΑΒΕ

    Please visit my blog http://thepoliticalforums.com/blogs/peter/
    (If a post link does not work, see the archives- it should work there.)

  2. #2
    Points: 22,167, Level: 36
    Level completed: 19%, Points required for next Level: 983
    Overall activity: 57.0%
    Achievements:
    Recommendation Second ClassSocial1 year registered10000 Experience Points
    Lummy's Avatar Post Review / PM Disabled
    Karma
    3822
    Join Date
    Apr 2018
    Posts
    8,911
    Points
    22,167
    Level
    36
    Thanks Given
    2,953
    Thanked 3,822x in 2,793 Posts
    Mentioned
    46 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)
    If beings in outer space are attacking earth, why is there never any follow up in the way of an invasion by the mother ship? I know -- don't ask. LOL.

    What if the explanation for evolution, which I don't particularly embrace as I once did, is viruses from outer space? And what if these viruses from outer space were actually clever manufacturing tools?

    And we were a work in progress?

  3. #3
    Original Ranter
    Points: 570,226, Level: 100
    Level completed: 0%, Points required for next Level: 0
    Overall activity: 99.8%
    Achievements:
    SocialCreated Album picturesOverdrive50000 Experience PointsVeteran
    Awards:
    Posting Award
    Peter1469's Avatar Advisor
    Karma
    435749
    Join Date
    Jun 2011
    Location
    NOVA
    Posts
    170,095
    Points
    570,226
    Level
    100
    Thanks Given
    101,804
    Thanked 86,730x in 58,196 Posts
    Mentioned
    2282 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)
    Quote Originally Posted by Lummy View Post
    If beings in outer space are attacking earth, why is there never any follow up in the way of an invasion by the mother ship? I know -- don't ask. LOL.

    What if the explanation for evolution, which I don't particularly embrace as I once did, is viruses from outer space? And what if these viruses from outer space were actually clever manufacturing tools?

    And we were a work in progress?
    Panspermia I believe theorizes that bacteria (micro-organisms) seeded the earth not viruses.
    ΜOΛΩΝ ΛΑΒΕ

    Please visit my blog http://thepoliticalforums.com/blogs/peter/
    (If a post link does not work, see the archives- it should work there.)

  4. #4
    Points: 32,095, Level: 43
    Level completed: 75%, Points required for next Level: 355
    Overall activity: 99.1%
    Achievements:
    Social1 year registered25000 Experience PointsCreated Album pictures
    Cotton1's Avatar Senior Member
    Karma
    4653
    Join Date
    Dec 2018
    Location
    Memphis and Arkansas
    Posts
    9,689
    Points
    32,095
    Level
    43
    Thanks Given
    5,173
    Thanked 4,646x in 3,372 Posts
    Mentioned
    33 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)
    I remember back in the good ole days of NASA. After a supposed trip to the moon the astronauts would check out of the Hilton and go to "quarentine".
    Question: If a dog is a person but a person isn't a dog what does that make the person?

    Answer: A dog person ....Cotton..

  5. #5
    Original Ranter
    Points: 570,226, Level: 100
    Level completed: 0%, Points required for next Level: 0
    Overall activity: 99.8%
    Achievements:
    SocialCreated Album picturesOverdrive50000 Experience PointsVeteran
    Awards:
    Posting Award
    Peter1469's Avatar Advisor
    Karma
    435749
    Join Date
    Jun 2011
    Location
    NOVA
    Posts
    170,095
    Points
    570,226
    Level
    100
    Thanks Given
    101,804
    Thanked 86,730x in 58,196 Posts
    Mentioned
    2282 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)
    Quote Originally Posted by Cotton1 View Post
    I remember back in the good ole days of NASA. After a supposed trip to the moon the astronauts would check out of the Hilton and go to "quarentine".
    They will continue to do that.
    ΜOΛΩΝ ΛΑΒΕ

    Please visit my blog http://thepoliticalforums.com/blogs/peter/
    (If a post link does not work, see the archives- it should work there.)

  6. #6
    Points: 14,309, Level: 28
    Level completed: 85%, Points required for next Level: 141
    Overall activity: 70.0%
    Achievements:
    3 months registered10000 Experience Points
    carolina73's Avatar Senior Member
    Karma
    3637
    Join Date
    Sep 2019
    Posts
    5,406
    Points
    14,309
    Level
    28
    Thanks Given
    2,720
    Thanked 3,629x in 2,528 Posts
    Mentioned
    16 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)
    Quote Originally Posted by Peter1469 View Post
    Panspermia I believe theorizes that bacteria (micro-organisms) seeded the earth not viruses.
    NASA says they have found frozen bacteria on meteors.
    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-m...7252KQ20110307

  7. The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to carolina73 For This Useful Post:

    Cotton1 (05-22-2020),Peter1469 (05-22-2020)

  8. #7
    Points: 2,870, Level: 12
    Level completed: 55%, Points required for next Level: 180
    Overall activity: 20.0%
    Achievements:
    1000 Experience Points3 months registered
    Padme's Avatar Senior Member
    Karma
    572
    Join Date
    Feb 2020
    Posts
    1,064
    Points
    2,870
    Level
    12
    Thanks Given
    219
    Thanked 562x in 410 Posts
    Mentioned
    1 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)
    Quote Originally Posted by Peter1469 View Post
    Panspermia I believe theorizes that bacteria (micro-organisms) seeded the earth not viruses.
    ... and then, the endosymbiotic theory appeared in which larger cells engulfed bacteria (prokaryotes) to form eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria to animal cells and Chloroplasts to plants cells.

    Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Mitochondria of
    Eukaryotic cells
    Chloroplasts of Photosynthetic eukaryotes
    DNA 1 single, circular chromosome Multiple linear chromosomes
    compartmentalized in a nucleus
    1 single, circular
    chromosome
    1 single, circular chromosome
    Replication Binary Fission
    (1 cell splits into 2)
    Mitosis Binary Fission
    (1 cell splits into 2)
    Binary Fission
    (1 cell splits into 2)
    Ribosomes "70 S" "80 S" "70 S" "70 S"
    Electron Transport Chain Found in the plasma membrane around cell Not found in the plasma membrane
    around cell (found only in the cell's mitochondria and chloroplasts)
    Found in the plasma membrane around mitochondrion Found in the plasma membrane around chloroplast
    Size (approximate) ~1-10 microns ~50 - 500 microns ~1-10 microns ~1-10 microns
    Appearance on Earth Anaerobic bacteria:
    ~3.8 Billion years ago
    Photosynthetic bacteria:
    ~3.2 Billion years ago
    Aerobic bacteria:
    ~2.5 Billion years ago
    ~1.5 billion years ago ~1.5 billion years ago ~1.5 billion years ago
    https://www.khanacademy.org/

    "Master Skywalker said you should teach me about politics." - Padme Amidala

  9. The Following User Says Thank You to Padme For This Useful Post:

    Peter1469 (05-23-2020)

  10. #8
    Points: 14,309, Level: 28
    Level completed: 85%, Points required for next Level: 141
    Overall activity: 70.0%
    Achievements:
    3 months registered10000 Experience Points
    carolina73's Avatar Senior Member
    Karma
    3637
    Join Date
    Sep 2019
    Posts
    5,406
    Points
    14,309
    Level
    28
    Thanks Given
    2,720
    Thanked 3,629x in 2,528 Posts
    Mentioned
    16 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)
    Viruses come from mutations whether it is natural or made in a Chinese lab. Who is to say that bacteria could not morph into a virus?

  11. #9
    Points: 2,870, Level: 12
    Level completed: 55%, Points required for next Level: 180
    Overall activity: 20.0%
    Achievements:
    1000 Experience Points3 months registered
    Padme's Avatar Senior Member
    Karma
    572
    Join Date
    Feb 2020
    Posts
    1,064
    Points
    2,870
    Level
    12
    Thanks Given
    219
    Thanked 562x in 410 Posts
    Mentioned
    1 Post(s)
    Tagged
    0 Thread(s)
    Quote Originally Posted by carolina73 View Post
    Viruses come from mutations whether it is natural or made in a Chinese lab. Who is to say that bacteria could not morph into a virus?
    No, viruses do not come from mutations. Mutations are related to loss of function and not the other way around. Viruses can arise from recombination events that could be natural occurring or not. There are at least three theories trying to explain the origin of viral genomes and for some, they circulated even before bacteria or eukaryote cells arose in nature. No, bacteria cannot morph into a virus. However, viral genomes can infect bacteria and become phages. In fact, phage therapy has been around since yesterday and more is getting investigated about their use in the fight against bacterial antibiotic resistance.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5547374/

    "Master Skywalker said you should teach me about politics." - Padme Amidala

  12. The Following User Says Thank You to Padme For This Useful Post:

    Peter1469 (05-24-2020)

+ Reply to Thread

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts

Single Sign On provided by vBSSO