Ok, so I'm a big fan of proportional representation (PR) and parliamentary government, but I understand the impractibility of either of those things happening in the US. Proportional representation would confuse many voters and would likely require several constitutional amendments. The federal structure of government also makes PR awkward. Not to mention, absent any real threat to one of the major political parties (either from the right or left) there is no reason to make PR happen here in the US.
So here are what I see as some more practical solutions that will make a few people happy and maybe help us solve some of our problems:
1. Instant Runoff Voting: This is the most imaginable change to US elections that I can see. If Libertarian voters cost Romney this election, Republicans have a real incentive to call for a change to government, and an amendment to allow IRV would be one of the most practical. This way, dedicated ideologues could vote for their favorite candidate, and the top two vote getters would move on to a second round of votes. This way it is more likely that a third party can get into the top two, increasing their money raising capabilities and possibly allowing for more voter participation.
2. End or Reform the Commission on Presidential Debates: A nonprofit corporation created by the Democratic and Republican Parties, the CPD gets to set standards for who is allowed in the presidential debates. They decided that candidates need to poll at 15% nationally to get into the debates. Most polls don't ask about third party candidates by name, however, and 15% is a pretty high threshold when you consider that most Americans are painfully aware that they must vote Republican or Democrat and live in a swing state for their vote to count.
3. Amend the Constitution to allow for campaign finance reform: Of course it's unconstitutional. But the Constitution can be amended, and sometimes it should. Allowing campaign finance reform should be a priority for most Americans, especially considering that big money donations to a candidate's Super PAC could easily translate into special favors from that candidate once in office. I'm not sure how special favors for certain special interests suit the ideas of a Constitutional Republic, since they often lead to very unconstitutional actions, so Americans sohould be concerned about the extreme amount of money in politics.
4. Term limits: I'm a fan of single term limits for federal politicians. I think that if people are given the right incentives, they will slightly improve their behavior. Politicians have an incentive to work for the next election. Some think of this as a good thing, saying it keeps them on their toes and makes sure politicians are responsive to their constituents. In real life, this is only somewhat true, because most politicians don't avoid actions that stick in the craw of most voters, and then call for more spending and protect entitlements to make sure they're safe in the next election cycle. If politicians weren't able to continue their career in Washington, they still might try and appease special interests, perhaps hoping for a lucrative position in some company after they leave office. This too is regrettable, but maybe there are other ways of giving politicians an incentive to govern responsibly along side term limits.
What are some of your ideas?