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Thread: Brett's new science lessons.

  1. #11
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    waltky's Avatar Senior Member
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    Cool

    Einstein proven right again...

    Neutron star collision has changed our understanding of universe: scientists
    Wed, Oct 18, 2017 - THEORY PROVED: The observation of the collision is another feather in the cap for Albert Einstein, who predicted gravitational waves more than 100 years ago
    For the first time, scientists have witnessed the cataclysmic crash of two ultra-dense neutron stars in a galaxy far away and concluded that such impacts forged at least half the gold in the universe. Shock waves and light flashes from the collision traveled about 130 million light-years to be captured by detectors on Earth on Aug. 17, excited teams revealed at news conferences held around the globe on Monday as a dozen related science papers were published in top academic journals. “We witnessed history unfolding in front of our eyes: two neutron stars drawing closer, closer ... turning faster and faster around each other, then colliding and scattering debris all over the place,” joint discoverer Benoit Mours of France’s CNRS research institute said. The groundbreaking observation solved a number of physics riddles and sent ripples of excitement through the scientific community.

    Most jaw-dropping for many, the data finally revealed where much of the gold, platinum, uranium, mercury and other heavy elements in the universe come from. Telescopes saw evidence of newly-forged material in the fallout, the teams said — a source long suspected, now confirmed. “It makes it quite clear that a significant fraction, maybe half, maybe more, of the heavy elements in the universe are actually produced by this kind of collision,” said physicist Patrick Sutton, a member of the US-based Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), which contributed to the find. Neutron stars are the condensed, burnt-out cores that remain when massive stars run out of fuel, blow up and die. Typically about 20km in diameter, but with more mass than the sun, they are highly radioactive and ultra-dense — a handful of material from one weighs as much as Mount Everest.


    An undated illustration provided by the National Science Foundation shows an artist’s impression of two merging neutron stars.

    It had been theorized that mergers of two such exotic bodies would create ripples in the fabric of space-time known as gravitational waves, as well as flashes of high-energy radiation called gamma ray bursts. On Aug. 17, detectors witnessed both phenomena, 1.7 seconds apart, coming from the same spot in the constellation of Hydra. “It was clear to us within minutes that we had a binary neutron star detection,” said David Shoemaker, another member of LIGO, which has detectors in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. “The signals were much too beautiful to be anything but that.” The observation was the fruit of years of labor by thousands of scientists.

    Along with LIGO, they include teams from Europe’s Virgo gravitational wave detector in Italy, and a number of ground and space-based telescopes, including NASA’s Hubble. “This event marks a turning point in observational astronomy and will lead to a treasure trove of scientific results,” said Bangalore Sathyaprakash from Cardiff University’s School of Physics and Astronomy, recalling “the most exciting [discovery] of my scientific life.” “It is tremendously exciting to experience a rare event that transforms our understanding of the workings of the universe,” added France Cordova, director of the National Science Foundation, which funds LIGO. The detection is another feather in the cap for physicist Albert Einstein, who predicted gravitational waves more than 100 years ago. Three LIGO pioneers — Barry Barish, Kip Thorne and Rainer Weiss — were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics this month for the observation of gravitational waves, without which the latest discovery would not have been possible.

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  2. #12
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    Brett Nortje's Avatar Senior Member
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    Mixtures mixing.

    I have for a long time thought those chemical structure things are very complex, and, that they have a natural algorithm where they cling to things in preferred states. Obviously, the liquids will bond with other liquids first, and so forth, but in mixtures in the body especially, there must be rhyme to the reason?

    So, we have a few gases trapped in the blood stream. If we were to observe that nitrogen is poisonous, yet essential to the workings of the body, is it possible that all gases are poisonous to the body - yes, I think so! So, it is a collection of poisons, where, the poisons click together to fin the right way to accumulate to be something, a molecule, mind you.

    If we were to observe that acidity holds things together, as they will react with each other, and, form molecules due to acidity, then this is the building block of life, you could say? This is what I have been looking for! Acidity guides how molecules form. This means they are drawn together by how acidic they are, with, the more acidic elements being drawn together with the less acidic elements, of course. This would be where there is 'will' of the atom, affecting those with less will, of course.

    Now, if we were to observe that acidity is about how much a element will dissolve, or, react, then the more it dissolves the more drawn to something that does not dissolve there is, because, it seeks 'stability.' This is basic homeostasis, of course. This is where the more stable elements draw in the less stable ones, and, collect to for molecules.
    !! Thug LIfe !!

  3. #13
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    Brett Nortje's Avatar Senior Member
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    With science, the objective is what you learn in high school, to find balance or stress points not to be messed with! If we were to observe that mixtures will mix any way their 'density' allows, then the thicker the liquid gas or solid the harder it is to mix, because, it does not mix as quickly. We all exist at the same rat, so, finding mixing rtes r atoms would be to our advantage with planning overnight mixtures and so forth.

    So, what is he mixing rate? If were to observe the speed of electricity, that is the speed of gases mixing, yes? This is because the protons are attracted to the electrons at certain speeds, and, that is where the electrical effects of particles influence the speed of migration between atoms, or, the speed they bond at.

    If the atoms will mix at all, there will always be resistance due to 'density.' This density is like mass that resists other mass, as, things that weight anything are occupying space that other things also can.

    ~ Remember, photons do not have mass because they are burning mass, they are a 'parasite' on the particle or atom, okay?

    So, the denser the atoms, the harder they are and longer they take to 'mix.' Metals also mix due to boiling points being reached and then they soften as per the materials weight, which can be observed on the grids there are.

    Now, if we were to observe that anything under a certain point of mass will mix - there is no way to know unless there are tests in a lab - then we will be able to find the rate they mix at. If this rate is equal to the mass being liquid or gas, then we can safely say that it must be 'equal to mass minus mass' or something to that effect.
    !! Thug LIfe !!

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    Brett Nortje's Avatar Senior Member
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    Size and mass.

    I was talking to someone now, and, found that if you take the mass of the object or material, we can find the size of it!

    This follows that the material will have mass compressed due to orbital activity. The more orbitals it has, the 'harder' it is, and, that means that it will be more compressed, yes? If you were to observe that a sponge that is full of soap or 'clean' or empty is compared, you will agree with that, yes?

    Then, we find the mass. Mass equals weight of the material compared to density. So, for each electron, which 'pulls,' there should be a divider that needs to be observed regarding the size, as, each thing weighs the same with the same properties, of course.
    !! Thug LIfe !!

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    Brett Nortje's Avatar Senior Member
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    Half lives and spin.

    Some of you may wonder why we label physics and particles with spin and half life? These terms are there to find the decay rate of the particle, where, it will need a new one to survive. This is like you know those big barrels of molten metal, where they cool down, the stuff that was hot has 'decayed,' okay? That stuff is unstable, like fire - it will go out once the free electrons find their mate, otherwise their 'hormones' drive them to 'date rape' all metals until they do.

    The reason the stuff cools down is because the fire is out, the temperature for the hormones to be active is stopped or diminished, and, they will run out of fuels in this regard. This means that the metal will set as it cools, remembering that in deep space, where the temperature is very cold, things will drift away from stable temperatures and disintegrate, as it is either too hot - the stars or sun - or too cold - too much absence of heat. Heat is the foundation of all matter, as it holds it together through friction - the only reason we are held together is because the little things of the world are reacting due to a balance of the strong force and weak force - electromagnetism, where, the body is formed by attraction by friction, like sparks will look for a piece of wood, or, fire spreads, okay? The fire spreading will result in things being welded together, don't you agree?
    !! Thug LIfe !!

  6. #16
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    Energy itself.

    With energy, there is a build up of 'friction.' This friction is energy, as, it manifests itself into 'reactions.' These reactions are where something happens, and, anything that is happening is kinetic energy and anything that is possibly going to happen is potential energy, that much we know, yes?

    So, what is energy? This is where, as we found, things will happen, have happened or are happening. These things are releases of energy, and they will result in 'effects and changes,' of course.

    There are many terms for more specific types of energy measurements, like mass, electromagnetism, joules, stress and others too. All sciences are studies of these changes and measurements and variables within, even humanities, but they use terms for feelings and cultural things, the psychological changes taking place, of course.

    What is the goal of science but to help understand energy?
    !! Thug LIfe !!

  7. #17
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    Radiation and Ions;

    It is my conclusion, after reading through some data, that ions ONLY form due to radiation. This is where the effects of the light onto the material leads to a reaction where the mass will admit the radiation into it's electron clouds, being "orbitals," and, then emit colours from this. This is also where anions are created, and, with the creation of anions, which are electrically charged, thus they attract more electrons, there is a cation created, where the excitement created by the anion steals the electrons from the next atom, where the lack of electrons leads to excess protons and thus a cation is created.

    ~ This means that cations and anions must be in equal number, maybe created by 'the electromagnetic force' itself, yes?

    So, clearing up the light debate, with seeing and colours we could safely say we only see with the heating and varying levels of heat onto mass, where it emits anions for our nerves to detect in varying levels.

    To create gem stones, we need to merely heat materials with radiation. This would be where we shine all sorts of lights at high levels onto soft beach stones, to make them become gem stones. I would suggest U.V. lights and other lighting techniques.
    !! Thug LIfe !!

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  9. #18
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    Bosons.

    These are the core of the particles that conduct energy, being the photon, that is not a particle but a parasite, as it has no mass, as it lives off the other particles for it's existence, where it merely consumes mass as a fire. Yes, photons are the fire element, and, are a product of friction, in the form of the reaction that emits light itself. This means the photon will merely conduct frequency or radiation, in fact being radiation, as it is the field around the electrons, which we know well. Otherwise the gluon is a product of repulsion between electrons, so, makes the atoms of bonds more stable, through adding charges that repulse each other. They are therefore something that exists only because electrons are generating them, like the photons. This means they will form appear and disappear, being complex gases electrical charges communicating to tell each other that 'the circle is closed,' like a bouncer, if you will. Or, like a magnetic field of two similarly charged magnets, or, the repulsion of solid waste to the nerves, where the excess, which is what they are, or, like two tribes of lions pushing to keep the others off their grounds, even though they are the same species. Then, there are th weakly charged particles, excess of the weak force, the excess of the electron.

    I conclude that the only real boson that emits charge is the electron, as everything else is merely there because of the electron, like a shadow of it.
    !! Thug LIfe !!

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    Fermions.

    These are the proper particles that provide mass. The bosons will only feed off the fermions, and, that is because they have a positive spin. Typically, if it spins positively, it is ageing, like all things natural. That is why they die out when they are shed or bled off the matter. Fermions on the other hand are spinning anticlockwise, so as to provide resistance to this ageing, where they will feed the energy of kinematic types. This means they will be forcing the universe back to normal, crushing it with gravity and electromagnetism, where the universe would collapse if not kept stable by the unstable particles. Yes, this means things would be reduced to zero if there was nothing separating them, make sense? Like a black hole, crushing us to the centre.

    So, these things are like dead in the water, mass that does not move. The electrons are responsible for friction and the bosons are the by product, like waste that displaces the the official particles, or, the back stage that supports the actors of the play. Where fermions are the atoms, the mesons are the things that carry information, or, are charged by the particles, of course. This means mesons are parasites on fermions, and, that means the whole spectrum changes to dormant and kinetic energies. The fermions have mass, unlike the mesons, which are just frequency itself.
    !! Thug LIfe !!

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